Slide 1: Black/White history • Jim Crow: Late 1800s to 1960s – System of formal Black-White segregation • After ‘Reconstruction’ in the South – Supreme Court: Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) • Plessy: ‘of seven-eighths Caucasian, and one- eighth African blood’ • Denied a seat on a first class coach in Louisiana • Court upheld ‘separate-but-equal’

Slide 2: Civil Rights era • Civil Rights era – Supreme Court: Brown v. Board of Ed (1954) • Court overturned Plessy • Rejected ‘separated-but-equal’ • School districts can’t segregate – Social movement mobilization – Challenge to segregation, 1950s-1960s

Slide 3: Civil Rights Act (1964) • Bans employer discrimination based on: – race – sex – religion – national origin • Allows current inequalities to persist – Past discrimination affects qualifications

Slide 4: 1884-1914: 3,600 lynchings Murder of James Allen and John Littlefield, Marion, Indiana, 1930

Slide 5: Executions for rape, 1930-1967 50 Not Black Black 405

Slide 6: Men in Prison, 2004 9,000 8,000 White Latino Black 7,000 Per 100,000 Men 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 18-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-54 55+ Source: BJS, “Prisoners in 2004.”

Slide 7: The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Prison

Slide 8: U.S. v. the world: Incarceration USA 724 Russia 564 South Africa 344 Israel 109 Mexico 191 England 145 Australia 120 China 118 Canada 116 Germany 97 France 88 Sweden 81 Japan 60 India 31 Rates per 100,000 population: US 2004, others most recent. Source: sentencingproject.org.

Slide 9: People in prison and jail 2,250,000 2,000,000 1,750,000 1,500,000 1,250,000 1,000,000 750,000 500,000 250,000 0 1986 1988 1996 1998 1980 1982 1984 1994 1990 1992 2000 2002 2004 Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics Correctional Surveys. Update: prison clock

Slide 10: People without freedom 8,000,000 7,000,000 Probation 6,000,000 Parole 5,000,000 Jail 4,000,000 Prison 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 0 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics Correctional Surveys.

Slide 11: Chance of ever going to prison, men 35 Black Latino White 35 30 30 25 25 Percent 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 1977 1980 1974 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, “Prevalence of Imprisonment in the U.S. Population, 1974-2001.”

Slide 12: What the justice system does • Maintain a visible ‘class’ of criminals • Project an image – Threat of crime = threat from the poor • A system designed to fail – Practices that lead to crime, not prevent it • Turns the middle class against the poor – ideological function

Slide 13: And how it maintains crime • Criminalizes victimless crimes – Crimes with no unwilling victim • Arbitrary power for enforcers – Increases alienation, mistrust of the system • Prisons are painful and demeaning – Overcomes any deterrent effect

Slide 14: And how it maintains crime (2) • Failure to provide job training or jobs • Life-long stigma – No voting rights for former felons – Registration laws and police records • No legitimate means of success – No opportunity for ‘legitimate’ means Update: Today’s NYT

Slide 15: Florida’s ex-felons in 2000 57,489 26,359 Bush’s margin in Florida: 537 votes Non-voters Republican If ex-felons could vote: Democrat Gore wins by 31,003 529,666 With 613,514 disenfranchised ex-felons: Assumes 14% would have voted, 69% of them for Gore.

Slide 16: Failure to stop crime • Recent declines – Partly the result of anti-crime policies? • But still higher than 1960 rates – Same policies didn’t work for many years • Other explanations – Stabilization of the drug trade – Fewer teenagers – Economic improvement

Slide 17: California, thousands in prison 500 480 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 Imprisonment (left) 50 0 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics; Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Slide 18: California prison, murder rate 500 Murder (right) 14 450 12 400 350 10 300 8 250 200 6 150 4 100 Imprisonment (left) 2 50 0 0 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics; Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Slide 19: California prison, murder, jobs 500 Murder (right) 14 450 12 400 350 10 300 8 250 200 6 150 Unemployment (right) 4 100 Imprisonment (left) 2 50 0 0 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics; Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Slide 20: Reiman’s Pyrrhic defeat theory Pyrrhic victory: victory at such a high cost, it’s really defeat Pyrrhic defeat Failure to stop crime benefits the powerful so much it amounts to success.

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